NLP Glossary - Terms and meanings - The Tad James Co.

NLP GLOSSARY

NLP Jargon Defined

Accessing Cues External signs that give us information about what we do inside. The signs include breathing, gestures, posture, and eye patterns.
‘As-If’’ Frame This is “acting as if” something were true. I.E.: Pretending that you are competent at something that you are not, like tennis. The idea is that the pretense will increase your capability.
Analogue  (As opposed to Digital) Analogue distinctions have discrete variations, as in an analogue watch.
Anchoring The NLP Technique whereby a stimulus is linked to a response. An Anchor can be intentional or naturally occurring.
Associated It deals with your relationship to an experience. In a memory, for example, you are associated when you are looking through your own eyes, and experiencing the auditory and kinesthetics at the same time.
Auditory Hearing.
Backtrack To go back and summarize or review what was previously covered, as in a meeting.
Behavior Any external verifiable activity we engage in.
Beliefs Generalizations we make about the world and our opinions about it.
Calibration Usually involves the comparison between two different sets of non-verbal cues (external verifiable behavior). It allows us to distinguish another’s state through non-verbal cues.
Chunking As in thinking – moving up or down a logical level. Chunking up is moving up to a higher, more abstract level that includes the lower level. Chunking down is moving to a level, which is more specific.
Complex Equivalence This occurs when two statements are considered to mean the same thing, E.G.: “She doesn’t look at me, and that means she doesn’t like me.”
Congruence When the behavior (external verifiable) matches the words the person says.
Conscious That of which we are currently aware.
Contrastive Analysis This is a SubModality process of analyzing two sets of SubModalities to discover the Drivers, I.E.: What makes them different. For example the difference between Ice Cream (which the client likes) and Yogurt (which the client does not like) are based on SubModality distinctions.
Content Reframe  (Also called a Meaning Reframe) Giving another meaning to a statement by recovering more content, which changes the focus, is a Content Reframe. You could ask yourself, “What else could this mean?” or “What is something you had not noticed?”
Context Reframing Giving another meaning to a statement changing the context. You could ask yourself, “What is another context in which this behavior would be more appropriate?”
Criteria The NLP word for values – what is important to you. (See Time Line Therapy and the Basis of Personality, 1988.)
Crossover Mirroring Matching a person’s external behavior with a different movement, E.G.: Moving your finger to match the client’s breathing.
Deep Structure The unconscious basis for the surface structure of a statement. Much of the deep structure is out of awareness.
Deletion One of the three major processes (including distortion and generalization) on which the Meta Model is based. Deletion occurs when we leave out a portion of our experience. (See page 45, NLP Practitioner Training Manual.)
Digital Digital (As opposed to Analogue) Digital distinctions have distinct variations of meaning as in a Digital watch, or an “On/Off” switch.
Dissociated It deals with your relationship to an experience. In a memory, for example, you are dissociated when you are not looking through your own eyes, and you see your body in the picture.
Distortion One of the three major processes (including deletion and generalization) on which the Meta Model is based. Distortion occurs when something is mistaken for that which it is not. In India there is a metaphor which explains this: A man sees a piece of rope in the road and thinks it is a dangerous snake, so he warns the village, but there is no snake. (See page 45, NLP Practitioner Training Manual.)
Downtime Downtime occurs whenever we go inside. It can occur when we go internal for a piece of information or when we get in touch with feelings. (See Up Time.)
Drivers In SubModalities, drivers are the difference that makes the difference. Discovered through the process of Contrastive Analysis, Drivers are the critical SubModalities, and when changed tend to carry the other SubModalities with them.
Ecology In NLP, Ecology is the study of consequences. We are interested in the results of any change that occurs. It is often useful to look at the ecology in making any change as to the consequences for self, family (or business), society and planet.
Elicitation Inducing a state in a client, or gathering information by asking questions or observing the client’s behavior.
Eye Accessing Cues Movements of the eyes in certain directions which indicate visual, auditory or kinesthetic thinking. (See page 23, NLP Practitioner Training Manual.)
Epistemology The study of knowledge or how we know what we know.
First Position This is one of the Perceptual Positions. First Position is when you are in touch with only your own inner Model of the World.
Frame A frame sets a context, which is a way we can make a distinction about something, as in As-If Frame, Backtrack Frame, Outcome Frame.
Future Pace Mentally rehearsing a future result to install a recovery strategy so that the desired outcome occurs.
Generalization One of the three major processes (including distortion and deletion) on which the Meta Model is based. Generalization occurs when one specific experience represents a whole class of experiences. (See page 45, NLP Practitioner Training Manual.)
Gustatory Taste.
Incongruence When the behavior (external verifiable) does not match the words the person says.
Intent The outcome of a behavior.
Internal Representations The content of our thinking which includes Pictures, Sounds, Feelings, Tastes, Smells, and Self Talk.
Kinesthetic This sense includes feelings, and sensations.
Law of Requisite Variety The Law of Requisite Variety states that “In a given physical system, that part of the system with the greatest flexibility of behavior will control the system.”
Leading After pacing (matching or mirroring) a client’s behavior, leading involves changing your behavior so that the other person follows your behaviors.
Lead System This is where we go to access information. The Lead System is discovered by watching Eye Accessing Cues.
Logical Level The level of specificity or abstraction. (E.G.: Money is a lower logical level than Prosperity.)
Logical Type The category of information. (E.G.: Ducks are a different logical type from Cars.)
Mapping Across Following Contrastive Analysis, Mapping Across is the SubModality process of actually changing the set of SubModalities of a certain Internal Representation to change its meaning. E.G.: Mapping the SubModalities of Ice Cream (which the client likes) over to those of Yogurt (which the client does not like) should cause the client to dislike Ice Cream. (See page 28, NLP Practitioner Training Manual.)
Matching Deliberately imitating portions of another’s behavior for the purpose of increasing rapport. (E.G.: If we both raise our right hand, then I am matching you.)
Meaning Reframe (Sometimes called a Content Reframe) Giving another meaning to a statement by recovering more content, which changes the focus, You could ask yourself, “What else could this mean?” or “What is something you had not noticed in this context which will change the meaning of this?”
Meta Model Meta Model means “Over” Model. A model of language, derived from Virginia Satir that allows us to recognize deletions, generalizations and distortions in our language, and gives us questions to clarify imprecise language. (See page 45, NLP Practitioner Training Manual.)
Meta Programs These are unconscious, content-free programs we run which filter our experiences. Toward & Away From, and Matching & Mismatching are examples of Meta Programs. (See Time Line Therapy and the Basis of Personality, 1988; see also, our NLP Master Practitioner Training Collection.)
Metaphor A story (analogy or figure of speech) told with a purpose, which allows us to bypass the conscious resistance of the client and to have the client make connections at a deeper level.
Milton Model The Milton Model has the opposite intent of the Meta Model (Trance), and is derived from the language patterns of Milton Erickson. The Milton Model is a series of abstract language patterns which are ambiguous so as to match our client’s experience and assist her in accessing unconscious resources.
Mirroring Matching portions of another person’s behavior, as in a mirror. (E.G.: If you raise your right hand, and I raise my left, then I am mirroring you.)
Mismatching This generally relates to contradictory behavior or words, and is one of the Meta Programs.
Modal Operator Modal Operator of Necessity relates to words, which form the rules in our lives (should, must, have to, etc.). Modal Operator of Possibility relates to words that denote that which is considered possible (can, cannot, etc.).
Model In NLP, a Model is a description of a concept or a behavior, which includes the Strategies, Filter Patterns and Physiology so as to be able to be adopted easily.
Modeling Modeling is the process by which all of NLP was created. In Modeling we elicit the Strategies, Filter Patterns (Beliefs and Values) and Physiology that allow someone to produce a certain behavior. Then we codify these in a series of steps designed to make the behavior easy to reproduce.
Model of the World A person’s values, beliefs and attitudes that relate to and create his or her own world.
Neuro Linguistic Programming NLP is the study of excellence, which describes how our thinking produces our behavior, and allows us to model the excellence and to reproduce that behavior.
Nominalization A process word which has been turned into a noun, often by adding “tion”. (See Meta Model, Page 45, NLP Practitioner Training Manual.)
Olfactory The sense of smell.
Outcome Desired result.
Overlap Using a preferred representational system to allow us to gain access to another, E.G.: “Imagine walking (preferred rep system) along the beach and hearing the birds. Now, look down at the sand and feel the cool wet sand beneath your feet.”
Pacing Pacing is matching or mirroring another person’s external behavior so as to gain rapport.
Parts Parts are a portion of the unconscious mind, which often have conflicting beliefs and values. (See page 52, NLP Practitioner Training Manual.)
Parts Integration An NLP technique, which allows us to integrate parts at the unconscious level by assisting each one to traverse logical levels (by chunking up) and to go beyond the boundaries of each to find a higher level of wholeness. (See page 52, NLP Practitioner Training Manual.)
Perceptual Position Describes our point of view in a specific situation: First Position is our own point of view. Second Position is usually someone else’s point of view. Third position is the point of view of a dissociated observer.
Phonological Ambiguity This occurs when there are two words, which sound the same but have different meanings. (See Milton Model, page 39, NLP Practitioner Training Manual.)
Preferred Rep System This is the representational system that someone most often uses to think, and to organize his or her experiences.
Presuppositions Presuppositions literally means assumptions. In natural language the presuppositions are what is assumed by the sentence. They are useful in “hearing between the lines” and also for communicating to someone using assumptions that will have to be accepted by the listener so that the communication makes sense. (See page 35, NLP Practitioner Training Manual.)
Presuppositions of NLP Assumptions or convenient beliefs, which are not necessarily “true,” but which if accepted and believed will change our thinking and improve our results as an NLP Practitioner.
Primary Rep System This is how we represent our internal processing, esternally. (It is discovered by listening to Predicates and looking at Physiology.)
Punctuation Ambiguity Ambiguity, which is created by changing the punctuation of a sentence by pausing in the wrong place, or by running-on two sentences. (See Milton Model, page 39, NLP Practitioner Training Manual.)
Quotes This is a Linguistic Pattern in which your message is expressed as if by someone else. (See also Extended Quotes and Milton Model, page 39, NLP Practitioner Training Manual.)
Rapport The process of Matching or Mirroring someone so that they accept, uncritically, the suggestions you give them. (Originally in Hypnosis ‘Rapport’ had a different meaning, which was, a state where the subject in Hypnosis sees, hears only the Hypnotherapist.) This is not the meaning in NLP where it relates to establishing trust and rapport between two people.
Reframing The process of changing the frame or context of a statement to give it another meaning. In selling this process is called, “Answering Objections.”
Representation A thought in the mind which can be comprised of Visual, Auditory, Kinesthetic, Olfactory (smell), Gustatory (taste), and Auditory Digital (Self Talk).
Representational System One of the six things you can do in your mind: Visual, Auditory, Kinesthetic, Olfactory (smell), Gustatory (taste), and Auditory Digital (Self Talk).
Resources Resources are the means to create change within oneself or to accomplish an outcome. Resources may include certain states, adopting specific physiology, new strategies, beliefs, values or attitudes, even specific behavior.
Resourceful State This refers to any state where a person has positive, helpful emotions and strategies available to him or her. Obviously the state implies a successful outcome
Second Position Relating to a Perceptual Position: Second Position describes our point of view in a specific situation.  Second Position is usually someone else’s point of view. (First Position is our own point of view, Third position is the point of view of a dissociated observer.)
Sensory Acuity This relates to observational skills. Having Sensory Acuity means that we can notice things about our client’s physiology that most people would not notice. (See page 15, NLP Practitioner Training Manual.)
Sensory-Based Description Is describing someone’s verifiable external behavior in a way that does not include any evaluations, but in a way that just relates the specific physiology. E.G.: “She is happy,” is (in NLP terminology) an hallucination. A sensory based description would be, her lips are curved upward at the end, and her face is symmetrical.
State Relates to our internal emotional condition. I.E.: A happy state, a sad state, a motivated state, etc. In NLP we believe that the state determines our results, and so we are careful to be in states of excellence.
Strategy A specific sequence of internal and external representations that leads to a particular outcome.
SubModalities These are distinctions (or subsets) that are part of each representational system that encode and give meaning to our experiences. E.G.: A picture may be in Black & White or Color, may be a Movie or a Still, may be focused or defocused – these are visual SubModalities.
Surface Structure This is a linguistic term meaning the structure of our communication, which generally leaves out the completeness of the Deep Structure. The process is Deletion, Generalization and Distortion. (See also Deep Structure.)
Synesthesia A two-step strategy, where the two steps are linked together with one usually out of awareness, as in “I want to see how I feel.”
Syntactic Ambiguity Where it is impossible to tell from the syntax of a sentence the meaning of a certain word. Often created by adding “ing” to a verb, as in “Hypnotizing Hypnotists can be easy.”
Third Position Relating to a Perceptual Position: Third Position describes our point of view in a specific situation. Third position is the point of view of a dissociated observer. (First Position is our own point of view, Second Position is usually someone else’s point of view.)
Time Line Our Time Line is the way we store our memories of the past, the present and the future.
Time Line Therapy™ A specific process created by Tad James, which allows the client to release negative emotions, eliminate limiting decisions and to create a positive future for himself. (See Time Line Therapy and the Basis of Personality, 1988.)
Trance Any altered state. In Hypnosis it is usually characterized by inward one-pointed focus.
Unconscious That of which you are not conscious, or which is out of awareness.
Unconscious Mind The part of your mind that you are not conscious of … right now.
Universal Quantifiers Words that are universal generalizations and have no referential index. Includes words such as “all”, “every”, and “never” See Meta Model page 45, and Milton Model, page 39, NLP Practitioner Training Manual.)
Uptime A state where the attention is focused on the outside (as opposed to Downtime where attention is focused inward).
Values High-level generalizations that describe that which is important to you – in NLP sometimes called criteria. (See Time Line Therapy and the Basis of Personality, 1988.)
Vestibular System Having to do with the sense of balance.
Visual Having to do with the sense of sight.
Visual Squash (Now called Parts Integration.) An NLP technique which allows us to integrate parts at the unconscious level by assisting each one to traverse logical levels (by chunking up) and to go beyond the boundaries of each to find a higher level of wholeness.
Well Formedness Along with the Keys to an Achievable Outcome (see page10, NLP Practitioner Training Manual), the Well Formedness Conditions (see page 11, NLP Practitioner Training Manual) allow us to specify outcomes that are more achievable, because the language conforms to certain rules.